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Risk Factors for Recurrent Infections

Risk factors that contribute to infection in mitochondrial disease include:

  1. Specific immunologic deficiencies (e.g., neutropenia in Barth syndrome and Pearson syndrome);
  2. Non-specific immunologic deficiency;
  3. The presence of foreign devices such as central venous lines and ports;
  4. Risk of aspiration from gastroesophageal reflux and/or neurologic disease or oropharyngeal incoordination;
  5. Fatigue/weakness in pulmonary musculature;
  6. Gut dysmotility with bacterial overgrowth and microbial translocation from the gut;
  7. Urinary retention and incomplete evacuation with/without vesicoureteral reflux and the risk of bladder and/or kidney infection;
  8. Diabetes mellitus.


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