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Urinary Tract Infections

When bladder dysfunction occurs, patients may complain of frequency, urgency, incomplete emptying ("double-voiding"), and/or frank urinary retention.  The onset of these symptoms may be gradual, or initially may not be an issue except during periods of physiologic stress (e.g., during infections) with a return to regular functioning as the stressor recedes.  When urinary retention is significant, cystitis may occur and with reflux pyelonephritis as well.

Having the patient try and urinate on a schedule (e.g., every two hours) may help reduce the incidence of infection (as well as other symptoms such as urgency, frequency, dribbling and incontinence).  Prophylactic antibiotics may be a consideration.  In more advanced cases, intermittent catheterization may be indicated.

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